Science lesson starters

Key Stage 3 & 4

These show Year 7 to 11 physics students different effects of sound and are designed to be used on an interactive whiteboard. There are also follow on work sheets for download. Brief practical experiments are included in this secondary science classroom resource.

Using high-speed camera technology, Trevor Cox professor of acoustics at the University of Salford, conducts experiments in sound. He firstly shows what happens when rubbing the rim of a glass of water is slowed down to 80 times less than normal speed. Trevor then demonstrates the sound effects of a tuning fork, a triangle, a cymbal and a guitar, as well as the impact of sound on a soap bubble, burning candles and a wine glass. Using an oscilloscope Trevor then shows the difference in frequencies produced by different octaves played on a saxophone. The ‘confusaphone’ shows what happens when one’s left and right hearing is mixed up, and Trevor examines the effect of a sonic boom, created by a cracking whip. He finally assesses the effect of echo and the varying sounds we can create with our own bodies.

Four Octaves of Sound

Examine waveform patterns. Different notes on a saxophone are shown to have varying wave patterns.

Hearing and the Ear – The Confusaphone

Shows how sound travels through the air and reaches the human ear in binaural. Using a confusaphone, which changes how a person hears sound. This page gives instructions for making the Confusaphone.

Sonic Boom – Cracking the Whip

Demonstrate the speed of sound using the crack of a whip.
Show how cracking a whip creates a sonic boom, meaning the whip tip is travelling faster than the speed of sound.

Breaking glass with sound

A wine glass is smashed by the power of sound when the right resonant frequency is reached, in this quick experiment.

Sound absorbing materials

Highlight the effect of different materials on sound, brick vs foam. The same musical instrument is played in two differently decorated rooms, one with brick and one with foam walls.

Making body sound

Illustrate how different parts of the body can create different sounds. A physicist uses various parts of the body, such as clicking his fingers, to show how sound can be formed.

Sound Through a Medium: Wobbling Bubbles

This quick practical experiment showing how a bubble is affected by different sounds. Bubbles vibrate at different rates when placed near a loudspeaker when the sound frequency changes.

Sound Through a Medium: Flickering Candles

Demonstrate how a flickering candle responds when exposed to a variety of sound frequencies. It shows how a candle’s flame reacts when placed in front of a loudspeaker.

Extension activities

License

Materials released under Creative Archive License

Acknowledgements

Originally made for Teachers’ TV

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